Annex 1: Definition of Terms

There are several terms used to refer to the broad issues that the German Reproducibility Network aims to address, and these are often used interchangeably. Our focus is on ensuring that Germany produces robust, rigorous research. Below we list various terms and definitions that are widely used and define which meaning is intended by each word within the context of the GRN. We utilize definitions introduced by Hale et al. (2019) (i.e., rigor, transparency and open communication, accountability) and Goodman et al. (2016) (i.e., results reproducibility, methods reproducibility and inferential reproducibility) , but this is not to suggest that these are the only or "correct" definitions.

Rigor, in line with prevailing disciplinary norms and standards: in performing research and using appropriate methods; in adhering to an agreed protocol where appropriate; in drawing interpretations and conclusions from the research; and in communicating the results.

Transparency and open communication in declaring potential competing interests; in the reporting of research data collection methods; in the analysis and interpretation of data; in making research findings widely available, which includes publishing or otherwise sharing negative or null results to recognise their value as part of the research process; and in presenting the work to other researchers and to the public.

Accountability of funders, employers and researchers to collectively create a research environment where individuals and organisations are empowered and enabled to own the research process. Those engaged with research must also ensure that individuals and organisations are held to account when behaviour falls short of the standards set by this concordat.

Following Goodman and colleagues we understand reproducibility as consisting of 3 types: methods reproducibility, results reproducibility, and inferential reproducibility.

Results Reproducibility refers to obtaining the same results from the conduct of an independent study whose methods are as closely matched to the original as possible or a re-analysis of the original data set.

Methods Reproducibility refers to the provision of enough detail about study procedures and data so the same procedures could, in principle or actuality, be exactly repeated.

Inferential Reproducibility refers to the drawing of qualitatively similar conclusions from either an independent replication of a study or a re-analysis of the original study.


Goodman, S. N., Fanelli, D., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2016). What does research reproducibility mean?. Science translational medicine, 8(341), 341ps12-341ps12.

Hale, C., Arrowsmith, J., Bayes, S., Bodmer, H., Garman, A., Hubbard, P., ... Sooben, P. (2012). The concordat to support research integrity. Universities UK

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Reproducibility and replicability in science. National Academies Press.